WASHINGTON — Congress took up a $900 billion pandemic relief package Monday night that would deliver long-sought cash to businesses and individuals, as well as resources to vaccinate a nation confronting a surge in COVID-19 cases and deaths.
Lawmakers tacked on a $1.4 trillion catchall spending bill and thousands of pages of other end-of-session business in a massive bundle of bipartisan legislation as Capitol Hill prepared to close the books on the year.
The relief package, agreed to on Sunday and released in bill form Monday afternoon, remained on track for votes in the House and Senate on Monday night. It would establish a temporary $300 per week supplemental jobless benefit and a $600 direct stimulus payment to most Americans, along with a new round of subsidies for hard-hit businesses and restaurants, as well as money for schools, health care providers and renters facing eviction.
The 5,593-page legislation — the longest bill ever written, by far — came together Sunday after months of battling, posturing and post-election negotiating that reined in a number of Democrat demands as the end of the congressional session approaches. President-elect Joe Biden has said he was eager for a deal to deliver help to suffering people and a boost to the economy, even though it was less than half the size Democrats wanted in the fall.
The House was cruising to a vote Monday night and the Senate was expected to vote shortly afterward. Congress was passing a one-week stopgap spending bill to avert a partial government shutdown at midnight and give President Donald Trump time to sign the legislation.
Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, a key negotiator, said Monday morning on CNBC that the direct payments would begin arriving in bank accounts next week.
Democrats acknowledged that it isn’t as large a relief package as they initially sought — or, they say, the country needs.
“This deal is not everything I want — not by a long shot,” said Rules Committee Chairman Jim McGovern, R-Mass., a longstanding voice in the party’s old-school liberal wing. “The choice before us is simple. It’s about whether we help families or not. It’s about whether we help small businesses and restaurants or not. It’s about whether we boost [food stamp] benefits and strengthen anti-hunger programs or not. And whether we help those dealing with a job loss or not. To me, this is not a tough call.”
Democrats promised more aid to come after Biden takes office. Republicans were signaling a wait-and-see approach.
The final agreement would add to a national debt that has spiked by $7 trillion to $27.5 trillion during President Donald Trump’s term.
The measure would fund the government through September, wrapping a year’s worth of action on annual spending bills into a single package that never saw Senate committee or floor debate.
The legislation followed a tortured path. Democrats played hardball up until Election Day, amid accusations that they wanted to deny Trump a victory that might help him prevail. Party leaders denied that, but their demands indeed became more realistic after Trump’s loss and as Biden made it clear that half a loaf is better than none.
The final bill bears ample resemblance to a $1 trillion package put together by Senate Republican leaders in July, a proposal that, at the time, was scoffed at by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., as way too little.
Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., took a victory lap after blocking far more ambitious legislation from reaching the Senate floor. He said the pragmatic approach of Biden was key.
“A few days ago, with a new president-elect of their own party, everything changed. Democrats suddenly came around to our position that we should find consensus, make law where we agree, and get urgent help out the door,” McConnell said.
Sen. Shelley Moore Capito, R-W.Va, on Monday called the potential advancement of the bill “very good news.”
“I’m disappointed we didn’t do COVID-19 relief earlier,” she said, “but I’m happy we’re doing it now.”
Capito said the aid is targeted at people who were left behind or are still struggling. She said the bill is similar to bills that didn’t pass in September and October and includes funds for transportation and an increase to the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program.
“I think this has been a long process. You know, I made a speech on the floor today saying we’ve got to do better than this, that we shouldn’t drag these things out,” Capito said. “We’ve got small businesses, we’ve got people on unemployment, students, landlords, people who can’t pay their rent, and a lot of things that needed our help — and needed it in September and October, when it got caught up in politics.”
On direct payments, the bill provides $600 to individuals making up to $75,000 per year and $1,200 to couples making up to $150,000, with payments phased out for higher incomes. An additional $600 payment will be made per dependent child, similar to the last round of relief payments in the spring.
The $300 per week bonus jobless benefit was half the supplemental federal unemployment benefit provided under the $1.8 billion CARES Act in March. That benefit and would be limited to 11 weeks, instead of 16 weeks. The direct $600 stimulus payment also is half the March payment.
The CARES Act was credited with keeping the economy from falling off a cliff during widespread lockdowns in the spring, but Republicans controlling the Senate cited debt concerns in pushing against Democrats’ demands.
Progress came after a bipartisan group of pragmatists and moderates devised a $908 billion plan that built a middle-ground position that the top four leaders of Congress — the GOP and Democrat leaders of the House and Senate — used as the basis for their talks. The lawmakers urged leaders on both sides to back off of hardline positions.
Rep. Elissa Slotkin, D-Mich., said delivering the virus relief means there’s still a “pilot light of hope of bipartisanship that we can build on to get things done.”
“At times we felt like we were in the wilderness, because people on all sides of the aisle didn’t want to give, in order to give the other side a win,” Slotkin said. “And it was gross to watch, frankly.”
Republicans were most intent on reviving the Paycheck Protection Program with $284 billion, which would cover a second round of PPP grants to especially hard-hit businesses. Democrats won set-asides for low-income and minority communities.
The bill also contains $25 billion in rental assistance, $15 billion for theaters and other live venues, $82 billion for local schools, colleges and universities, and $10 billion for child care.
The government-wide appropriations bill is likely to provide a last $1.4 billion installment for Trump’s U.S.-Mexico border wall as a condition of winning his signature. The Pentagon would receive $696 billion. Democrats and Senate Republicans prevailed in a bid to use bookkeeping maneuvers to squeeze $12.5 billion more for domestic programs into the legislation.
The bill was an engine to carry much of Capitol Hill’s unfinished business, including an almost 400-page water resources bill that targets $10 billion for 46 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers flood control, environmental and coastal protection projects. Another addition extends a batch of soon-to-expire tax breaks, such as one for craft brewers, wineries and distillers.
It also carries numerous clean-energy provisions sought by Democrats with fossil-fuel incentives favored by Republicans, $7 billion to increase access to broadband internet, $4 billion to help other nations vaccinate their people, $14 billion for cash-starved transit systems, $1 billion for Amtrak and $2 billion for airports and concessionaires.
The Senate Historical Office said the previous record for the length of legislation was the 2,847-page tax reform bill of 1986 — about one-half the size of Monday’s behemoth.